Brazil’s Buzios crude is set to make further inroads switchboard streaming into China in the coming months, as production…
That’s put upward pressure on oil and gas prices, with Bank of America suggesting that oil could reach $100 per barrel this winter. This supply/demand dynamic, meanwhile, has increased the importance of OPEC, since it has been slowly increasing production and has ample room to ease the current market imbalance if it wanted to do so. The one thing all four of the companies have in common is that they are exploration and production names operating within the broader energy space.
Using a two-sided test, with 5% significance and a power of 80%, the required sample size to detect a correlation ≥ 0.32 is approximately 74. Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient was used to analyze the relationship between age and PICCOLO scores. For independent samples, the Student’s t test was used to compare mean Spanish PICCOLO scores according to child gender.
Affection decreased slightly from 1 to 2 years, and Encouragement showed a slight increase between the same ages. Teaching was the most variable dimension, increasing from 1 to 2 years and from 2 to 3. This could be interpreted as showing a mother’s tendency to adjust to the child’s interests and needs at all ages, a slight tendency to show more affection to younger children and to promote autonomy in older children, and a progressive increase in teaching behaviors with child’s age.
Discriminant validity was analyzed by obtaining the Pearson correlation coefficients among different PICCOLO domains. To test criterion-related validity, a subsample of 64 children were randomly selected and were assessed using the cognitive, motor and linguistic subscales of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III; Bayley, 2015). The smaller number of participants for this subsample was due to the high cost of applying the Bayley Scales to the children.
The company raised its total production guidance by 8% to 68,000-75,000 b/d of oil equivalents from 61,500-70,500 boe/d, and also increased its oil production target 5% to 39,500 b/d-42,500 b/d from 36,500-41,500 b/d. Two approaches to estimating the effect of parenting on the development of executive function in early childhood. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed using lavaan, an R package for Structural Equation Modeling, version 0.5–12 . The rest of the statistical analyses were carried out using IBM SPSS Statistics, version 24.0. Also Tuesday, WPX Energy likewise raised 2019 production guidance for both oil and total boe, while keeping capex at earlier stated levels of 1.1 billion-1.275 billion.
Our findings showed good inter-rater reliability and internal consistency reliability of the Spanish PICCOLO domain and total scores, with similar values to those found in samples from Turkey (Bayoğlu et al., 2013) and the United States (Roggman et al., 2013a). Other observational measures of parenting that require complex coding or rating scales often require substantial training time for observers to accurately use the measures (Fuligni and Brooks-Gunn, 2013). In contrast, PICCOLO is a checklist of observable behaviors that can be learned relatively quickly to achieve accurate ratings of parenting interactions with children. Early positive parenting interactions promote child development, and specific parenting behaviors that lead to better developmental outcomes have been identified (Bradley and Corwyn, 2002; Mahoney, 2009; Warren et al., 2010).
Further construct validation evidence was compiled by examining the association between the PICCOLO scores and expected parenting-related constructs, such as child age and child gender. In this study, teaching domain and total PICCOLO scores were positively correlated with child age, as also found in the original PICCOLO sample (Roggman et al., 2013b) and the Turkish sample (Bayoğlu et al., 2013). In the Turkish sample, a statistically significant negative correlation was also found between child age and scores for the affection domain, which means that affection was higher with younger children. However, in the Spanish sample, the correlation between those variables was not significant.
Those parental behaviors that promote child development, primarily studied in mothers but also in fathers in some cases (Anderson et al., 2013; Cabrera et al., 2017), are labeled parenting or positive parenting. Although we use the term parenting, this refers to the child’s beaxy exchange review caregiver, which may or may not be the parent. For a subsample of 64 participants, Spanish PICCOLO domain and total scores were examined in relation to child cognitive, language and motor skills outcomes, measured using the Bayley scales of infant development (BSID-III).
- This could be interpreted as showing a mother’s tendency to adjust to the child’s interests and needs at all ages, a slight tendency to show more affection to younger children and to promote autonomy in older children, and a progressive increase in teaching behaviors with child’s age.
- For independent samples, the Student’s t test was used to compare mean Spanish PICCOLO scores according to child gender.
- The smaller number of participants for this subsample was due to the high cost of applying the Bayley Scales to the children.
- In the Turkish sample, a statistically significant negative correlation was also found between child age and scores for the affection domain, which means that affection was higher with younger children.
The PICCOLO domain scores for each observation were correlated with the Bayley scores. Child development was assessed using the Spanish version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development – III (BSID-III; Bayley, 2015). BSID-III scales are widely used to assess development between 1 and 42 months of age. Cognitive, Expressive Language, Receptive Language, Fine Motor, and Gross Motor Subscales were applied.
This does not mean that parenting is intergenerationally transmitted in an automatic way. Every parent conducts his/her parenting behaviors according to personal characteristics and beliefs, individual experience, cultural background and contextual demands. Although cross-cultural studies have been conducted (e.g., Jackson-Newsom et al., 2008; Burchinal et al., 2010; Bornstein, 2013; Lansford et al., 2014), these studies do not typically use a common measure across cultural groups. To better understand the global context of parenting, we need a single tool that could be used among different countries and cultural populations. A tool that is based on direct observation and has potential for cross-cultural use is the PICCOLO (Roggman et al., 2013b).
Spanish PICCOLO Scores by Child Age and Gender
PICCOLO was developed following an in-depth review of previous literature about parental behaviors related to children’s developmental outcomes and the authors’ own studies, and it is composed of 29 items in four behavioral domains. These domains are called affection, responsiveness, encouragement and teaching (Roggman et al., 2013a). Each domain identifies specific kinds of developmentally supportive parenting practices that predict children’s outcomes (Innocenti et al., 2013; Roggman et al., 2013a). The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the PICCOLO, an observational measure of parenting interactions with children that was developed in the United States (Roggman et al., 2013a), for use in practice and research on the Spanish population. The reliability and validity of the instrument was explored using a large sample of Spanish mothers and children aged from 10 to 47 months. The mean scores in all domains were similar between 1, 2 and 3 years of age, as shown in Table 2, with Responsiveness being the most constant dimension among ages.
Different tools have been used to measure the quality of parent-child interactions or positive parenting, most relying on parent reports. Typically, parent reports address parental abilities or competences in a broad sense, and parents respond to different items in terms of their consciousness about their own most frequent behaviors and attitudes about their child’s rearing and education. Good examples of this kind of instrument are the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (Essau et al., 2006), the Baby Care Questionnaire , and those developed by Gómez and Muñoz in Chile, and by Vázquez et al. in Spain.
So one day’s move probably isn’t something that investors should attempt to trade around, as that gets very close to market timing. And, notably, Centennial, Gran Tierra, Antero, and Range all have fairly modest market caps relative to industry giants like Chevronand ExxonMobil. From a big picture perspective, demand for energy has picked up as the world has learned to live, as best it can, with the coronavirus. However, when demand plummeted in the early days of the pandemic, many drillers pulled back on spending and capital investment has yet to materially increase in many cases. For example, Centennial’s drilling and development spending was down roughly 50% year over year in the second quarter, Range’s spending was down around 40%,and Antero’s drilling and completion costs were lower by about a third. Only Gran Tierra’s capital spending was higher, noting that this driller operates in South America and not the United States, like the other three names here.
Some authors have pointed out that direct observation of parental interactions by qualified coders can provide more accurate data about parenting in face-to-face daily interactions (Roggman et al., 2013b). The HOME (Home Measure of the Environment; Caldwell and Bradley, 2003), probably the most broadly used instrument for assessing the quality of family as a developmental context, includes some direct observations of parent-child interactions but is primarily conducted through interview. In Spain, Trenado and Cerezo developed a sequential coding system of early caregiver-child interaction in real time (CITMI-R).
Continental’s oil production in Q2 totaled about 193,600 b/d, up 23% from 157,100 b/d in the same year-before period. Papa noted that oil prices have been so volatile lately that he wants to be flexible on rig counts, should the opportunity to take advantage of any higher prices next year, should the opportunity arise. CDEV now expects to grow oil production 18% this year over that of 2018 rather than the previous 12% forecast, and total growth 17% instead of a prior 8%.
Maternal responsivity predicts language development in young children with Fragile X Syndrome. A longitudinal study of the relationship of maternal autonomy support to children’s adjustment and achievement in school. Environmental stimulation, parental nurturance and cognitive development in humans.
Although these tools can be useful for gaining knowledge about parental competences, they have some limitations that are common to all measures based on self-reporting, which include limitations on validity. The Spanish validation of the PICCOLO is a contribution in this regard, as the legacyfx regulation PICCOLO appears to meet these requirements. The original PICCOLO reliability is good, with an average of 0.77 inter-rater reliability correlations between pairs of observers for total score (0.80 for affection, 0.76 for responsiveness, 0.73 for encouragement and 0.69 for teaching).